I found that when buying ozone equipment and putting it together, it's helpful to have at least a basic understanding of the inner workings of ozone generators. Here I share what I have learned on the subject so far.

In order to produce ozone one needs two ingredients: oxygen and energy.

Air contains around 21% diatomic oxygen (O2). Ozone (O3) is made out of 3 oxygen atoms and holds an electrical charge.

When generating ozone for therapeutic purposes, the most common way nowadays to supply energy to the process comes in the form of electricity. When diatomic oxygen (O2, two oxygen atoms bound together, this is the type of oxygen which is contained in air and which we breath) is exposed to an electric field, some of it turns into ozone (O3, three oxygen atoms). 

Oxygen + Energy = Ozone

In nature ozone is created during thunderstorms when lightning strikes. UV light from the sun is also able to provide energy to create ozone from oxygen molecules: both high in the stratosphere (ozone layer) as well as close to the ground, often mistaken for smog.


Ozone generators are chambers through which oxygen flows and in which the oxygen is exposed to an electric field. These days there are two most common types of ozone chambers: single dielectric and dual dielectric.

What does dielectric mean?

A dielectric is an insulating material which does not conduct electricity well. In ozone generators the most widely used dielectrics are glass and ceramic. If glass or ceramic is placed between two electrodes (two pieces of metal which are very good electric conductors), it prevents electricity to flow.  What is created instead is an electrical field. This electric field is able to ionize gas molecules creating corona discharges or plasma.


Plasma lamp: gas is ionized inside an electric field. A similar effect takes place inside an ozone generator.

Inside a single dielectric ozone generator there is – as the name says – only one dielectric, meaning there is only one layer of the insulating material. So the oxygen flows between one of the electrodes (metal, usually stainless steel) and the dielectric material (glass or ceramic):

single dielectric ozone generator drawing

Diagram of a single dielectric corona discharge ozone generator.

The oxygen flows through the hollow chamber and is in contact with a stainless steel electrode on the outside and either glass or ceramic (the dielectric part) on the inside. Electricity is supplied to both electrodes (inner and outer), which creates an electric field. When oxygen flows through the high density energy field, some oxygen molecules break up and are rearranged into ozone molecules.

Examples of single dielectric ozone generators:

Stratus 2.0 ozone generator

The SimplyO3's Stratus 2.0.

O3Elite Single Stage ozone generator
O3Elite Dual Stage ozone generator

Promolife's O3Elite Dual Stage.

For an in-depth review of the above machines, please go to the page “Ozone Generators“.


Inside a dual dielectric ozone generator there are two dielectrics, meaning there are two layers of the insulating material, which is always glass. Glass is the only material moldable enough to be used in dual dielectric generators. So the oxygen flows between two layers of glass:

Diagram of a dual dielectric corona discharge ozone generator.


Examples of dual dielectric ozone generators:

Paul's Machine, the Azcozon HTU-500

The Ozonette by SimplyO3. One of the few which use ceramic and glass as the dielectric materials.

Longevity Resources EXT50
Longevity Resources EXT50.
Longevity Resources EXT120 ozone generator

Longevity Resources EXT120.

Plasmafire Beta V ozone generator

Plasmafire Beta V cold plasma ozone generator.

Plasmafire Alpha V ozone generator

Plasmafire Alpha V cold plasma ozone generator.

For an in-depth review of the above machines, please go to the page “Ozone Generators“.


A special kind of dual dielectric ozone generator is the cold plasma generator. Instead of metal electrodes, neon tubes are used to produce an electric field. Two neon tubes are set inside a bigger glass tube. Noble gases inside the glass tube are ionized when high voltage is applied to a metal electrode at the end of the tube. Two neon glass tubes set side by side are able to create an electric field which then charges the oxygen molecules which pass through. The bigger outside glass tube does not serve as a dielectric, it's there to keep the chamber contaminant free:

Diagram of a cold plasma dual dielectric ozone generator.


The only company which currently manufacturers cold plasma ozone generators is Plasmafire, with the Alpha V and the Beta V. They're both cold plasma and dual dielectric machines.

Plasmafire Beta V ozone generator

Plasmafire Beta V cold plasma ozone generator.

Plasmafire Alpha V ozone generator

Plasmafire Alpha V cold plasma ozone generator.

For an in-depth review of the above machines, please go to the page “Ozone Generators“.


What is a dual cell or double chamber ozone generator?

A dual or double cell or chamber ozone generator is a machine which has two ozone chambers set in line. The oxygen flows into the first chamber, is exposed to an electric field and some ozone is created. The resulting oxygen and ozone mix then is directed into the second chamber where again it's exposed to an electric field and yet more ozone is created. Dual or double cell ozone generators allow for a higher ozone output.

Diagram of a dual cell single dielectric ozone generator.

An example of a dual cell ozone generator is the O3Elite Dual Stage ozone generator by Promolife.

dual cell ozone generator promolife
O3Elite Dual Ozone Generator, a double cell single dielectric corona discharge ozone generator.

The lower the oxygen flow, the higher the ozone concentration

A peculiar mechanism governs ozone production. The slower oxygen flows through the gas chambers of an ozone generator, the higher the produced ozone concentration.

Why is that?

As explained above, ozone is created in an ozone generator by subjecting oxygen to energy. The longer oxygen can linger in the energy field, the more oxygen particles can turn to ozone. So, the lower the oxygen flow, the more ozone molecules are produced.

Example: below you see the ozone output chart of the Plasmafire Alpha V ozone generator.

plasmafire alpha v output chart

On the left side you see the oxygen flow (Flow Rate in liters per minute or LPM) from 1/32 to 1/2 LPM. 1/32 LPM is the smallest oxygen flow. 1/32 LPM equals 30 ml per minute which is roughly a fluid ounce per minute. 1/2 LPM is half a liter or around 17 ounces per minute. So 1/2 LPM is a higher oxygen flow than 1/32 LPM. If you look at the corresponding ozone concentration on the right, you see that the highest number is achieved at the lowest oxygen flow of 1/32 LPM.

Using ozone for personal care purposes like insufflations often calls for low to very low oxygen flows. When choosing the right ozone generator, you want to make sure that you will not subject yourself to unsafe ozone concentrations.


Given that the “ingredients” of ozone are oxygen and energy we need an oxygen source and an ozone generator, which is basically an electrical appliance where the oxygen will be “infused” with energy. Ozone therapy can be used in many different forms, for example transdermally (ozone saunas), by insufflating body cavities, by drinking ozonated water, or intravenously. All those forms require different accessories. Which ozone protocol one chooses to perform will dictate which additional equipment to use.

Essentially, we can break down every ozone therapy set-up into the following parts:

Scheme basic ozone generation

1. Oxygen source.

It can be either an oxygen concentrator or an oxygen tank, both have pros and cons. They should be equipped with low flow regulators which allow oxygen flows through the ozone generator of ideally between 1/32 to maximum 1/2 LPM (= Liter Per Minute). The oxygen should be of at least 90% purity, unless you're using oxygen for intravenous purposes in which case it should be of at least 99% purity.

2. Ozone generator.

It should be a machine made out of ozone resistant materials and one which does not generate ozone of more than 100 ug/ml (gamma). A chart should be provided showing what ozone concentrations are generated at which oxygen flows.

3. Accessories.

Accessories can be various additional attachments, for example catheters for rectal insufflations, a modified stethoscope for ear insufflations, a sauna for ozone saunas, diffuser stones for ozonating water and many more.

All the machinery and attachments are connected via hoses or tubings.

In order to connect the oxygen source with the ozone generator one uses clear PVC tubing. In order to connect the ozone generator with everything else one uses ozone resistant silicone tubing.


Continue with “Connectors and tubing for ozone equipment”


Legal Disclaimer

Information provided is for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional medical advice. No health claims for these products or diagnostic tools have been evaluated by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), nor has the FDA nor any other medical authority approved these products to diagnose, cure, or prevent disease. Neither The Power of Ozone nor the manufacturers of these items are responsible for the misuse of this equipment. It is highly advised to receive professional council from a licensed doctor before using ozone therapy or any of the mentioned products or tests on yourself.


  1. Lisa

    I have been seeing a newer type of ozone generator from electrolysis that works in water. What is your opinion of it and how does it compare to corona discharge in output strength and effectivemess? Also does it use lead dioxide? Thanks

    • Paola Dziwetzki

      Hi Lisa,

      I don't know much about those type of generators since they're not used in ozone therapy, but mostly in large scale, water remediation, or similar industrial areas.

      Sorry, can't say much more.



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